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Ezra Harris
Ezra Harris

Medical Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (Very...


The issues of medical ethics, from moral quandaries of euthanasia and the morality of killing to political dilemmas like fair healthcare distribution, are rarely out of today's media. This area of ethics covers a wide range of issues, from mental health to reproductive medicine, as well as including management issues such as resource allocation, and has proven to hold enduring interest for the general public as well as the medical practitioner. This Very Short Introduction provides an invaluable tool with which to think about the ethical values that lie at the heart of medicine. This new edition explores the ethical reasoning we can use to approach medical ethics, introducing the most important 'tools' of ethical reasoning, and discussing how argument, thought experiments, and intuition can be combined in the consideration of medical ethics. Considering its practical application, Tony Hope and Michael Dunn explore how medical ethics supports health professionals through the growing use of ethics expertise in clinical settings. They also contemplate the increasingly important place of medical ethics in the wider social context, particularly in this age of globalization, not only in healthcare practice, but also policy, discussions in the media, pressure group and activism settings, and in legal judgments.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.




Medical Ethics: A Very Short Introduction (Very...


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The issues of medical ethics, from moral quandaries of euthanasia and the morality of killing to political dilemmas like fair healthcare distribution, are rarely out of today's media. This area of ethics covers a wide range of issues, from mental health to reproductive medicine, as well as including management issues such as resource allocation, and has proven to hold enduring interest for the general public as well as the medical practitioner. This Very Short Introduction provides an invaluable tool with which to think about the ethical values that lie at the heart of medicine. This new edition explores the ethical reasoning we can use to approach medical ethics, introducing the most important 'tools' of ethical reasoning, and discussing how argument, thought experiments, and intuition can be combined in the consideration of medical ethics. Considering its practical application, Tony Hope and Michael Dunn explore how medical ethics supports health professionals through the growing use of ethics expertise in clinical settings. They also contemplate the increasingly important place of medical ethics in the wider social context, particularly in this age of globalization, not only in healthcare practice, but also policy, discussions in the media, pressure group and activism settings, and in legal judgments. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.


Medicine has become inhuman, to disastrous effect. The doctor-patient relationship - the heart of medicine - is broken: doctors are too distracted and overwhelmed to truly connect with their patients, and medical errors and misdiagnoses abound. In Deep Medicine, leading physician Eric Topol reveals how artificial intelligence can help. AI has the potential to transform everything doctors do, from notetaking and medical scans to diagnosis and treatment, greatly cutting down the cost of medicine and reducing human mortality.


Drawing upon the author's two decades teaching medical ethics, as well as his work as a practicing psychiatrist, this profound and addictive little book offers up challenging ethical dilemmas and asks listeners, What would you do? In short, engaging scenarios, Dr. Appel takes on hot-button issues that many of us will confront: genetic screening, sexuality, privacy, doctor-patient confidentiality. He unpacks each hypothetical with a brief reflection drawing from science, philosophy, and history, explaining how others have approached these controversies in real-world cases.


KIE: This is one of a set of six short articles, grouped under the umbrella title "Grassroots bioethics revisited: health care priorities and community values," with a very brief introduction by Bruce Jennings. The articles focus on the involvement of community health decisions projects with public policy issues of access to health care, allocation of resources, setting health care priorities, cost containment, and rationing.


The situation changed dramatically after the first half of the twentieth century and in a short time bioethics burst forth, imposed itself and spread with unstoppable force; despite the numerous investigations dedicated to its genesis-medical, legal, economic, historical, philosophical-, there has not yet been a satisfactory elucidation of the motives that provoked this revolution that definitively upset the way in which medicine is practiced. In short, there is a before and an after of this event [12-14]. With a bilocated birth, ecological bioethics, headed by Van Rensselaer Potter [15] and medical bioethics, guided by André Hellegers and Daniel Callahan [16, 17], followed the proposal of the cancer specialist Madison: "As a new discipline....combines biological knowledge with knowledge of the systems of human values" [18]. Its objective was ambitious, to bridge two modes of understanding the condition of human illness based on biological sciences and the humanities and its values. Its spectacular expansion exceeded any prediction and in a few years it compromised not only medicine in its totality, but also law, economy, philosophy and politics. Three attributes characterize its growth when applied to human illness: to elaborate specific procedures that serve to guide medical action in its very diverse fields; a particular concern about its application with the aim that it not remain in dead letters, because of which it was necessary to recommend sanctions in cases of negligence or abuse; and developing certain principles sufficiently general that they can serve as the basis for ordering behavior and taken in account requires acceptance by all members in order to aspire to universal in an axiological and polytheistic society like that of today [19]. In other words, foundations, systems of prescriptions or procedural guides and regulated and effective sanctions.


3. Metaphysics, which is sustaining throughout the edifice, cannot be resolved by empirical science because science itself is the result of a certain onto-logical conception that makes it possible, and that, at least, comes from the modern epoch. As Zubiri said, modernity has consisted of a progressive entification of reality and a logification of thinking [64]. In turn, transcending the cerebral "is" to the moral "duty" is not a trival matter, as Hume emphasized terming it a naturalistic fallacy [65]. Heidegger pointed it out with special profundity, current natural science proceeds according to a special thought, calculating and re-presentative (vor-stellende) [66]. This means that its manner of understanding reality, in this case, the reality of human beings in their moral slope, is dominating, im-posing, target-ing, calculating, and with that, numbering. What gets the scientist thinking is not something little, their data are not minor, but a price must be paid: take the "objective" reality pertaining to our condition but without considering the "way of being" proper to manhood as such. Objective science sees morality as an object-posed (ge-stezt) before a subject, as a norm (Ge-setzt) that exists in the brain, moral consciousness as a reified court that investigates the self and its actions. It is overlooked that our being is nothing but a project-of-being, never defined for once and for all, free to choose us and reach ourselves, or lose ourselves and mimicking ourselves with things of everyday life. It is clear, although we choose at every moment, we are not free, that is, we do not have the freedom to give ourselves our first foundation since it has already been given, we are already-in(sc/zon-se/n)-the-world, we are thrown among things and persons from the moment we are born [67]. Neuroethics must not repeat the insufficiencies of the neuropsychological sciences born in laboratories of the early twentieth century, programs that were full of hope and ideals but ended in not fulfilling expectations because of lack of meditative thinking [68]. To transform medical ethics into scientific neuroethics requires reviewing its metaphysical basis to be at the height of its future conquests and thus avoid confusing, mixing and dissolving the data with that which allows and makes possible that the data appears [69, 70]. 041b061a72


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