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Naum Aksenov
Naum Aksenov

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The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer, 1778) (Acari: Dermanyssidae) is one of the most economically important ectoparasites of laying hens worldwide. Chemical control of this mite may result in environmental and food contamination, as well as the development of drug resistance. High virulence of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato strains isolated from naturally infected hosts or from their environment has been demonstrated toward many arthropod species, including ticks. However, a limited number of studies have assessed the use of B. bassiana for the control of D. gallinae s.l. and none of them have employed native strains. This study reports the pathogenicity of a native strain of B. bassiana (CD1123) against nymphs and adults of D. gallinae. Batches of nymph and adult mites (i.e., n=720 for each stage) for treated groups (TGs) were placed on paper soaked with a 0.1% tween 80 suspension of B. bassiana (CIS, 10(5), 10(7) and 10(9) conidia/ml), whilst 240 untreated control mites for each stage (CG) were exposed only to 0.1% tween 80. The mites in TG showed a higher mortality at all stages (p




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Adult female Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari, Phytoseiidae) of one of our laboratory populations (=NR-population), show the following set of symptoms: predators shrink several days after mating, cease egg production and die several days after shrinking, show a lower degree of attraction to herbivore-induced plant volatiles and a shorter choice time in olfactometer tests, have the tendency to leave a prey patch with ample food, may carry excretory crystals in the legs, may cease prey consumption, and have a lower excretion rate. We hypothesized earlier that this characteristic syndrome, called non-responding (=NR-) syndrome, is caused by a pathogen infecting P. persimilis. To further support this hypothesis we here study several transmission modes of the factor causing the NR-syndrome. In all tests we measured size, short-term fecundity, mortality, predator position, response to plant odors and crystal location, thus including 6 of the 9 symptoms known yet. No evidence was found for vertical transmission from parent to offspring. Eggs from symptomatic females of the NR-population mated by males of the NR-population gave rise to normal-sized, well performing predators, when they had been surface sterilized or transferred to a new leaf. However, such eggs gave rise to shrunken females (17%) when left on the leaf where they had been laid. In the latter case transmission via products deposited on the leaf by the mothers was possible. We therefore tested several modes of horizontal transmission by exposing females of a commercial population that never showed the NR-syndrome (=R1-population) to products related to the symptomatic NR-population. No evidence was found for transmission via food or via squashed adult females. However, symptoms were induced in adult females of the R1-population after a 3-day exposure to a live adult female of the NR-population (incubation period=3-7 days, fraction shrunken females=53%) and after a 1-day exposure to feces and


Unlike many other skin diseases, success or failure of therapy of ectoparasitic infestation depends much more on how to use the topical preparation and whom we treat than on which scabicide or pediculicides to use. The diagnosis of scabies should no longer rely on the rather uncommon and unpractical sign of finding a burrow or the number of parasites per infected patient. Most infested individuals have been shown to have several-fold more acari than the oft-quoted average of 12 adult acari per infected patient that appears in most of our textbooks (stemming from Mellanby's work). Contrary to what Mellanby taught us, we know that indirect transmission (ie, without personal contact) does occur. As to which agent to use, the winner remains undeclared at present. Although indirect contact transmission of hair lice has been clarified after thousands of years of infestation, there are still numerous questions, uncertainties, disagreements, and controversies on the subject; for example, we know that lice survive immersion in water but are probably not transmitted in swimming pools. There is no consensus on the best or most correct way to diagnose lice, nor is the problem of resistance resolved. We do not recommend a "no-nit" policy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Coxal glands of unfed larvae Leptotrombidium orientale (Schluger, 1948) (Trombiculidae), a terrestrial mite parasitizing vertebrates, and Hydryphantes ruber (de Geer, 1778) (Hydryphantidae), a water mite parasitizing insects were studied using transmission electron microscopy. In both species, the coxal glands are represented by a paired tubular organ extending on the sides of the brain from the mouthparts to the frontal midgut wall and are formed of the cells arranged around the central lumen. As in other Parasitengona, the coxal glands are devoid of a proximal sacculus. The excretory duct, joining with ducts of the prosomal salivary glands constitutes the common podocephalic duct, opening into the subcheliceral space. The coxal glands of L. orientale are composed of a distal tubule with a basal labyrinth, an intermediate segment without labyrinth, and a proximal tubule bearing tight microvilli on the apical cell surface and coiled around the intermediate segment. The coxal glands of H. ruber mainly consist of the uniformly organized proximal tubule with apical microvilli of the cells lacking the basal labyrinth. This tubule shows several loops running backward and forward in a vertical plane on the side of the brain. In contrast to L. orientale, larvae of H. ruber reveal a terminal cuticular sac/bladder for accumulation of secreted fluids. Organization of the coxal glands depends on the ecological conditions of mites. Larvae of terrestrial L. orientale possess distal tubule functioning in re-absorption of ions and water. Conversely, water mite larvae H. ruber need to evacuate of the water excess, so the filtrating proximal tubule is prominent. 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in temperature and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two temperature regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant temperature) and DIF15 (variable temperature with day-night difference of 15C). At mean temperatures of 25C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean temperatures of 15C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15C and 25C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean temperature of 25C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that variable greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency


Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Mesostigmata) is the most important hematophagous ectoparasite in layer farms in many countries. The reproduction rate of the parasite is rapid and can be completed in a week under favorable conditions. The parasite has direct and indirect effects on birds. It can also act as a vector for some important pathogens. Many researchers have investigated the effects of essential oils, plant extracts, oriental medicinal plant extracts, and silica against red mite. They can be used as killing agents or repellents. In the present study, the effect of garlic (Allium sativum) extract was investigated for controlling red mite infestation in a layer farm in Babol, North of Iran. Our results showed that the extract was effective and we obtained a 96% success after two successive sprays.


Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours


Thirty-four essential oils were screened for their repellent activities against the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acarina: Tetranychidae), at 0.1% concentration level using choice and no-choice laboratory bioassays. Of these, 20 essential oils showed significant repellencies against T. urticae in the choice tests. In subsequent no-choice tests using these 20 essential oils, only sandalwood oil showed significant repellency against T. urticae. Total number of eggs oviposited by T. urticae was significantly lower than controls in the choice tests when the kidney bean leaves were treated with 1 of 14 essential oils. The significant repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae lasted at least for 5 h at the 0.1% concentration level. Our GC-MS analysis indicated that the major components of the sandalwood oil were alpha-santalol (45.8%), beta-santalol (20.6%), beta-sinensal (9.4%), and epi-beta-santalol (3.3%). Santanol, a mixture of the two main components in the sandalwood oil, appears to be responsible for the repellency of sandalwood oil against T. urticae. 350c69d7ab


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