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Ezra Harris
Ezra Harris

SLEEP APNEA



Loud snoring can indicate a potentially serious problem, but not everyone who has sleep apnea snores. Talk to your health care provider if you have symptoms of sleep apnea. Ask your provider about any sleep problem that leaves you fatigued, sleepy and irritable.




SLEEP APNEA


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Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the muscles that support the soft tissues in your throat, such as your tongue and soft palate, temporarily relax. When these muscles relax, your airway is narrowed or closed, and breathing is momentarily cut off.


This type of sleep apnea happens when the muscles in the back of the throat relax. These muscles support the soft palate, the triangular piece of tissue hanging from the soft palate called the uvula, the tonsils, the side walls of the throat and the tongue.


This less common form of sleep apnea occurs when your brain fails to send signals to your breathing muscles. This means that you make no effort to breathe for a short period. You might awaken with shortness of breath or have a difficult time getting to sleep or staying asleep.


Daytime fatigue. The repeated awakenings associated with sleep apnea make typical, restorative sleep impossible, in turn making severe daytime drowsiness, fatigue and irritability likely.


You might have trouble concentrating and find yourself falling asleep at work, while watching TV or even when driving. People with sleep apnea have an increased risk of motor vehicle and workplace accidents.


Complications with medicines and surgery. Obstructive sleep apnea is also a concern with certain medicines and general anesthesia. People with sleep apnea might be more likely to have complications after major surgery because they're prone to breathing problems, especially when sedated and lying on their backs.


Fatigue. The repeated awakening associated with sleep apnea makes typical, restorative sleep impossible. People with central sleep apnea often have severe fatigue, daytime drowsiness and irritability.


Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder that causes frequent pauses in breathing during sleep. Most people with sleep apnea experience symptoms such as loud snoring and daytime sleepiness. The two main types of sleep apnea are obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA).


In OSA, a narrowing of the airway during sleep leads to breathing disruptions. In CSA, the breathing disruptions are caused by a lack of communication between the brain and the muscles involved in breathing.


People with sleep apnea repeatedly have reductions or pauses in breathing for brief periods while they sleep. Although these lapses cause a person to awaken periodically and reduce sleep quality, sleepers may not fully wake up and remain unaware that their nighttime breathing is abnormal.


Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when the airway at the back of the throat becomes constricted or blocked during sleep, which may cause snoring Trusted Source Medline Plus MedlinePlus is an online health information resource for patients and their families and friends. View Source as air is prevented from passing through normally. In response to the airway obstruction, a person usually wakes up, engages the muscles in their throat, and takes several gasps or deep breaths, often accompanied by sounds like snorting or choking.


Obstructive sleep apnea is the most common type of sleep apnea. It is estimated to affect 10% to 30% of adults Trusted Source UpToDate More than 2 million healthcare providers around the world choose UpToDate to help make appropriate care decisions and drive better health outcomes. UpToDate delivers evidence-based clinical decision support that is clear, actionable, and rich with real-world insights. View Source in the United States but in many cases goes undiagnosed.


Central sleep apnea (CSA) involves disruption in the communication between the brain and the muscles that control breathing Trusted Source Merck Manual First published in 1899 as a small reference book for physicians and pharmacists, the Manual grew in size and scope to become one of the most widely used comprehensive medical resources for professionals and consumers. View Source . As a result, breathing may become shallower and have temporary pauses.


The prevalence of central sleep apnea is low compared to obstructive sleep apnea. It is estimated that less than 1% Trusted Source Medscape Reference Medscape is on online destination for healthcare professionals worldwide, offering expert perspectives, drug and disease information, and professional education. View Source of people have CSA.


In people with obstructive sleep apnea, the muscles in the back of the throat relax during sleep, reducing space for air to pass through. Snoring occurs as the airway narrows, and when the airway is obstructed, a person fails to get enough oxygen. The lack of oxygen causes partial or complete awakenings in order to restore airflow. These breathing disruptions happen repeatedly during sleep.


Central sleep apnea arises because of problems in how the brain communicates with the muscles responsible for breathing. For people with CSA, a part of the brain called the brain stem fails to properly recognize carbon dioxide levels in the body during sleep. This leads to repeated episodes of breathing that is slower and shallower than it should be.


Central sleep apnea most often occurs as a consequence of another medical problem, such as an infection or injury affecting the brain stem Trusted Source Medline Plus MedlinePlus is an online health information resource for patients and their families and friends. View Source , heart or kidney failure, stroke, or excess growth hormone production. Studies have identified some additional factors that are linked with a heightened risk of central sleep apnea.


A sleep study is necessary to diagnose obstructive or central sleep apnea. The most dependable kind of sleep study is called polysomnography, which is conducted during an overnight stay at a specialized sleep laboratory.


During polysomnography, multiple sensors are used to track breathing, awakenings, oxygen levels, muscle movement, sleep stages, and other aspects of sleep. An in-clinic sleep study can determine if breathing is abnormal and differentiate between obstructive and central sleep apnea. For OSA, polysomnography may involve either one or two visits to a sleep clinic.


An at-home sleep study for obstructive sleep apnea is an option for certain patients who are believed to have more severe OSA. Taking an at-home sleep apnea test may be more convenient, but the results must still be interpreted by a health professional. Home testing is not used for central sleep apnea.


Positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is a treatment offered to almost all people with obstructive sleep apnea. PAP therapy keeps the airway open Trusted Source Medline Plus MedlinePlus is an online health information resource for patients and their families and friends. View Source with pressurized air that is pumped from a machine through a hose and a mask worn on the face.


Treatment for central sleep apnea often focuses on addressing the medical issue causing abnormal breathing. If sleep disruptions are mild, treatment for the underlying cause may be all that is required.


Although frequently associated with older adults, sleep apnea can occur in children. In young people, obstructive sleep apnea is much more common Trusted Source UpToDate More than 2 million healthcare providers around the world choose UpToDate to help make appropriate care decisions and drive better health outcomes. UpToDate delivers evidence-based clinical decision support that is clear, actionable, and rich with real-world insights. View Source than central sleep apnea. It is estimated that 1% to 5% of children Trusted Source UpToDate More than 2 million healthcare providers around the world choose UpToDate to help make appropriate care decisions and drive better health outcomes. UpToDate delivers evidence-based clinical decision support that is clear, actionable, and rich with real-world insights. View Source have obstructive sleep apnea.


Children with OSA may not experience excessive daytime sleepiness as seen in adults with sleep apnea. Instead, they may exhibit daytime symptoms like hyperactivity, learning difficulties, or behavior problems.


As in adults, snoring is common for children with obstructive sleep apnea. However, children may have other nighttime symptoms Trusted Source Medline Plus MedlinePlus is an online health information resource for patients and their families and friends. View Source like sweating, bedwetting, or sleepwalking. Children with severe untreated OSA may also experience problems with their growth and development.


For many children, obstructive sleep apnea is caused by enlarged tonsils and adenoids in the throat, and surgery to remove these tissues Trusted Source Merck Manual First published in 1899 as a small reference book for physicians and pharmacists, the Manual grew in size and scope to become one of the most widely used comprehensive medical resources for professionals and consumers. View Source may be an option for treatment.


The resulting lack of oxygen activates a survival reflex that wakes you up just enough to resume breathing. While that reflex keeps you alive, it also interrupts your sleep cycle. That prevents restful sleep and can have other effects, including putting stress on your heart that can have potentially deadly consequences.


There are many approaches to treating sleep apnea, depending on the specific type of sleep apnea and how severe it is. While none of these is a cure, they can help prevent apnea events or reduce how often they happen or how severe they are.


Positive airway pressure is a method that uses a specialized device to increase the air pressure inside of your airway while you inhale. This method can treat obstructive, central and mixed sleep apneas. 041b061a72


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